Blue Planet dialysis: novel water-sparing strategies for reducing dialysate flow



Hemodialysis (HD) is an expensive therapy in economic and in ecological terms, owing to a high carbon footprint and significant consumption of natural sources, especially water. Our aim was to review strategies to diminish waste of water in maintenance dialysis, exploring previously described water reuse trends and less known strategies for reducing the dialysate flow.


We conducted a systematic review of water-sparing strategies, including the reuse of reverse osmosis rejected water and the reduction of dialysate flux. We performed a search in Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, OVID and Biblioteca Redentor, using key words: Dialysate flow rate, Dialysate flux, and decrease; excluding: online, peritoneal, continuous, blood access, needle, hemodiafiltration, acute, pharmacokinetics, increase. We limited our search to adult humans or in vitro trials in English, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, between January 1980 and June 2017. We found 816 trials. 37 articles were retrieved for review, and 11 articles were analyzed.

Results and conclusions

Conservation of water in chronic HD should be considered an important responsibility of healthcare practitioners all over the world. We present a wider usage of dialysate flow rates, considering that it would lead to significant water conservation without much compromise on dialysis efficacy in small patients. We believe that further investigation into the utility of reduced dialysate flux in different populations is needed to broaden our understanding of how we can use these techniques in order to significantly reduce water consumption during chronic HD while still ensuring optimum efficacy and efficiency of the therapy.

Post author correction

Article Type: REVIEW



Alejandra Molano-Triviño, Benjamin Wancjer, Mauro M. Neri, Akash N. Karopadi, Mitchell Rosner, Claudio Ronco

Article History

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  • Internal Medicine and Nephrology, RTS – Fundaciòn Cardioinfantil, Bogotà - Colombia
  • International Renal Research Institute, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza - Italy
  • Dr. Nayak Dialysis Centres Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad - India
  • Department of Nephrology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia - USA
  • Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza - Italy

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