Over time left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) have become an alternative to heart transplantation because of enormous technical development and miniaturization. Most patients present a significant improvement in clinical conditions and exercise capacity. Nevertheless, exercise tolerance remains markedly limited even after LVAD implantation compared to a control group. The complex physiological and hemodynamic changes in LVAD patients, both at rest and during exercise, are not yet understood, or at least not completely.
It is the aim of the present paper to describe the current state of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, the spectrum of diagnostic tools, including the noninvasive inert gas rebreathing method for measurement of cardiac output and associate parameters, are discussed. Options for training control in this special patient group are presented.
Int J Artif Organs 2016; 39(9): 451 - 459
Article Type: REVIEW
AuthorsNils Reiss, Thomas Schmidt, Anke Workowski, Detlev Willemsen, Jan D. Schmitto, Axel Haverich, Birna Bjarnason-Wehrens
- • Accepted on 24/10/2016
- • Available online on 09/11/2016
- • Published in print on 11/11/2016
This article is available as full text PDF.
- Reiss, Nils [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 1, * Corresponding Author (email@example.com)
- Schmidt, Thomas [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 1
- Workowski, Anke [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 1, 2
- Willemsen, Detlev [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 1
- Schmitto, Jan D. [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 3
- Haverich, Axel [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 3
- Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna [PubMed] [Google Scholar] 2
Cardiac Rehabilitation, Schüchtermann-Klinik Bad Rothenfelde, Bad Rothenfelde - Germany
Institute for Cardiology and Sports Medicine, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne - Germany
Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover - Germany