The effect of ultrasonically activated irrigation and laser based root canal irrigation methods on debris removal



To test the efficacy of debris removal of 5 in vitro irrigation protocols: conventional irrigation, irrigation activated by ultrasound, Er:YAG laser with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) tip, and 2 diode laser techniques.


The root canals of 75 extracted human canine teeth were enlarged and bisected longitudinally. Standardized grooves were prepared 2-6 mm from the root apex and filled with 0.5 mm of dentine debris. The teeth were reassembled and irrigated using 1 of the following techniques (n = 15/technique): (1) conventional irrigation, (2) diode laser irrigation - tip placed 2 mm from working length, (3) diode laser irrigation - tip placed at root canal orifice, (4) Er:YAG laser - PIPS, and (5) ultrasonically activated irrigation. The root segments were disassembled, and the amount of remaining debris was evaluated by 3 examiners under a stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification using a 4-grade scoring system. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s multiple comparison tests, with a 95% confidence level (p = 0.05). Cohen’s kappa test was used to evaluate inter-observer and intra-observer agreement.


Ultrasonically activated irrigation removed significantly more dentinal debris than conventional irrigation (p = 0.016), but there were no significant differences between the other groups.


Ultrasonically activated irrigation was more effective than conventional irrigation in the removal of apically placed dentine debris.

Post author correction




Aysenur Kamaci, Berdan Aydin, Necdet Erdilek

Article History


Financial support: This research study was funded by a grant from the Ege University Scientific Research Committee - project number 2013-dis-012.
Conflict of interest: None of the authors has financial interest related to this study to disclose.

This article is available as full text PDF.

  • If you are a Subscriber, please log in now.

  • Article price: Eur 36,00
  • You will be granted access to the article for 72 hours and you will be able to download any format (PDF or ePUB). The article will be available in your login area under "My PayPerView". You will need to register a new account (unless you already own an account with this journal), and you will be guided through our online shop. Online purchases are paid by Credit Card through PayPal.
  • If you are not a Subscriber you may:
  • Subscribe to this journal
  • Unlimited access to all our archives, 24 hour a day, every day of the week.



  • Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ege University, Izmir - Turkey
  • Dentist Private Practice, Izmir - Turkey

Article usage statistics

The blue line displays unique views in the time frame indicated.
The yellow line displays unique downloads.
Views and downloads are counted only once per session.

No supplementary material is available for this article.